Author Guidelines

Address all correspondences and inquiries to the Chief Editor. Author is asked to provide manuscripts as electronic files. With electronic manuscripts formatting requirements are few: a) Use MS Word 2007, 1,5-spaced, 1`1 pt Times New Roman; b) Use Indonesian or English U.S. as the language; c) Indent or space between all paragraphs; d) Use the metric system throughout; e) Avoid text footnotes; they should be incorporated into the text. The manuscript should be arranged in the following order (begin new sections on new pages). Three or more reviewers are provided, at least two of which are from a different university than the authors.


Must be brief, informative and indicates the main point(s) of the paper, maximum 14 words.


Must be complete but without any title, accompanied by author and affiliation address. Corresponding author must provide and use an e-mail address unique to themselves and not one that is shared with another author registered or department.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. The abstract should not exceed 300 words and is constructed in 1 paragraph written in two languages: Indonesian and English.


Should be provided below the abstract to help with the electronic search (3-5 words)


The Introduction section should explain:

  • The background to the study
  • The aims
  • A summary of the existing literature
  • The reason why the study was necessary


The methods section should include:

  • The aim, design and setting of the study
  • The characteristics of participants or description of materials
  • A clear description of all processes and methodologies employed. Generic names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses
  • The type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate
  • Studies involving human participants, data or tissue or animals must include statement on ethics approval and consent


The results and discussion should include the findings of the study including, if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and figures. This section should discuss the implications of the findings in context of existing research and highlight limitations of the study.


This should state clearly the main conclusions and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the study to the field. The conclusion has to be written in a paragraph.


Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section. 


Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

 Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be included in the reference list.

Example: AOAC. (2002). Guidelines for single laboratory validation of chemical methods for dietary supplements and botanicals. AOAC International, 1–38.


Use italic for variables, bold for vector and matrices, script for transforms, and san serif for tensors. Use superscripts and subscripts in superior or inferior position; do not use raised and lowered fonts.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Every table must have a title, and all columns must have headings. Column headings must be arranged so that their relation to the data is clear and refer to column below. Footnotes should be indicated by superscript, lowercase letters. Each table must be cited in the text. Tables are placed next to the relevant text in the article. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


Please submit figures as editable graph and not as images. Cite each figure in numerical orders in text. Clearly mark orientation on figure, if questionable. Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Indicate latitude and longitude on maps. Color figures, foldouts, pocket maps, etc., can be accommodated, but the costs of color for publishing these special features must be borne by the author.


It is the authors responsibility to obtain any necessary permission to reproduce figures or tables from copyrighted sources. This includes any figures redrawn but basically unaltered or with only slight modifications. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.


The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Authors approve that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.